Cover Page

Wiley Logo
Java® SE 8 Programmer
Wiley Logo



Wiley Logo


Scott Selikoff

Jeanne Boyarsky




Wiley Logo










To the new little bundle of joy my wife is carrying.
— Scott



Remembering Einstein and CV in same year. Congrats 694!
— Jeanne


Acknowledgments

Scott and Jeanne would like to thank numerous individuals for their contribution to this book. Thank you to David Clark for guiding us through the process and making the book better in so many ways. Thank you to Janeice DelVecchio for being our technical editor as we wrote this book. Janeice pointed out many subtle errors in addition to the big ones. And thank you to Elena Felder for being our technical proofreader and finding the errors that we managed to sneak by Janeice. This book also wouldn’t be possible without many people at Wiley, including Kenyon Brown, Rebecca Anderson, Judy Flynn, Nancy Carrasco, and so many others.

Scott could not have reached this point without the help of a small army of people, led by his perpetually understanding wife, Patti, the most wonderful mother their twin daughters, Olivia and Sophia, could ask for. Professors Johannes Gehrke and John H. Hubbard of Cornell University always believed in him and knew he would excel in his career. Scott would like to extend his gratitude to his wonderfully patient co-author Jeanne, on this their third book. “I don’t know how she puts up with me, but I’m glad she does and thrilled at the quality of books we produce.” A big thanks to Matt Dalen, who has been a great friend, sounding board, and caring father to the wonderfully sweet Olivia Dalen. Joel McNary introduced Scott to CodeRanch.com and encouraged him to post regularly, a step that changed his life. Finally, Scott would like to thank his mother and retired teacher, Barbara Selikoff, for teaching him the value of education and his father, Mark Selikoff, for instilling in him the benefits of working hard.

Jeanne would personally like to thank everyone at CodeRanch.com who asked and responded to OCA and OCP questions and comments about our first two books. Having dialog with the readers made this book even stronger. Jeanne would like to thank the members of FIRST robotics FRC team 694 in addition to FTC teams 310 and 479 for their support. Your questions make it so she can never forget what new learners are thinking. Go StuyPulse! Jeanne would also like to thank Onur Otlu and Thomas Campos for the feedback on some localization questions. Finally, Jeanne would like to thank Scott for being a great co-author and “not getting tired of me.”

Last but not least, both Scott and Jeanne would like to give a big thank you to the readers of our OCA 8 and OCP 8 books. Hearing from all of you who enjoyed the book and passed the exam is a great feeling. We’d also like to thank those who pointed out errors and made suggestions for improvements in our OCP book. As of December 2016, the top three were Guillaume Bailly, Thalita Vergilio, and Sébastien Canonica. We also would like to thank Olivier Chalet, Mihaela Hetea, Peter Deak, Anton Shaikin, Ramya R, Tim Moroz, Aurelien Gamet, Javid Azimli, Salim Rahal, and Sander Wamelink.


About the Authors

Scott Selikoff is a professional software consultant, author, and owner of Selikoff Solutions, LLC, which provides software development solutions to businesses in the tri-state New York City area. Skilled in a plethora of software languages and platforms, Scott specializes in full-stack database-driven systems, cloud-based applications, and service-oriented architectures.

A native of Toms River, New Jersey, Scott achieved his Bachelor of Arts from Cornell University in Mathematics and Computer Science in 2002, after three years of study. In 2003, he received his Masters of Engineering in Computer Science, also from Cornell University.

As someone with a deep love of education, Scott has always enjoyed teaching others new concepts. He’s given lectures at Cornell University and Rutgers University, as well as conferences including the Server Side Java Symposium. Scott lives in New Jersey with his loving wife, Patti; amazing twin toddler daughters, Olivia and Sophia; and two very playful dogs, Webby and Georgette. You can find out more about Scott at http://www.linkedin.com/in/selikoff.

Jeanne Boyarsky has worked as a Java developer for over 14 years at a bank in New York City where she develops, mentors, and conducts training. Besides being a senior moderator at CodeRanch.com in her free time, she works on the forum’s code base. Jeanne also mentors the programming division of a FIRST robotics team, where she works with students just getting started with Java.

Jeanne got her Bachelor of Arts degree in 2002 in Computer Science and her Masters in Computer Information Technology in 2005. She enjoyed getting her Masters degree in an online program while working full time. This was before online education was cool! Jeanne is also a Distinguished Toastmaster and a Scrum Master. You can find out more about Jeanne at https://coderanch.com/wiki/660334.

Scott and Jeanne are both moderators on the CodeRanch.com forums, and they can be reached there for questions and comments. They also co-author a technical blog called Down Home Country Coding at http://www.selikoff.net.

In addition to this book, Scott and Jeanne are also the authors of OCA Oracle Certified Associate Java SE 8 Programmer I Study Guide (Sybex, 2015) and OCP Oracle Certified Professional Java SE 8 Programmer II Study Guide (Sybex, 2016). More recently, these two books have been combined into the single release OCA / OCP Java SE 8 Programmer Certification Kit: Exam 1Z0-808 and Exam 1Z0-809 (Sybex 2016).


Introduction

This book is intended for those taking either the 1Z0-808 or 1Z0-809 Oracle Java Programmer exams as well as those who want to test their knowledge of Java 8. If you are new to Java 8, we strongly recommend you start with a study guide to learn all of the facets of the language and come back to this book once you are thinking of taking the exam.

We recommend the best-selling OCA Oracle Certified Associate Java SE 8 Programmer I Study Guide and OCP Oracle Certified Professional Java SE 8 Programmer II Study Guide, which we happen to be the authors of, to start in your studies. Regardless of which study guide you are using to prepare, you can use this book to hone your skills, since it is based on topics on the actual exams.

Unlike the questions in our study guides, which are designed to be harder than the real exam, the questions in this book mirror the exam format. All the questions in this book tell you how many answers are correct. They will say “Choose two” or “Choose three” if more than one answer is correct.

Throughout this book, we use the same set of assumptions that Oracle uses for its exams. In many cases, these assumptions are actually accounting for unintended omissions or type-setting errors that Oracle is directing you to ignore when solving a question focused on a particular exam objective. The assumptions are listed at http://education.oracle.com and listed here for your convenience:

Choosing an Exam

The first step on the road to a Java certification is the Oracle Certified Associate 1Z0-808 (OCA 8) exam. The material includes the basic day-to-day tools every Java developer should be familiar with. Once you have completed that exam, you can move on to the more difficult Oracle Certified Professional 1Z0-809 (OCP 8) exam. This includes every topic on the first exam, along with many additional libraries and APIs that you may not even be familiar with in your career, such as the Concurrency and NIO.2 APIs.

If you already hold a Java certification, you are eligible for an upgrade exam. Table I.1 and Figure I.1 show the various pathways to the OCP 8 certification title. This book will help you prepare for all four of the exams listed in the table.

TABLE I.1 Exams this book covers

Exam Code Name Who should take
1Z0–808 Java Programmer I Everyone can take this exam.
1Z0–809 Java Programmer II Those who pass the OCA 8 exam
1Z0–810 Upgrade Java SE 7 to Java SE 8 OCP Programmer Holders of an OCP 7 certification
1Z0–813 Upgrade to Java SE 8 OCP (Java SE 6 and all prior versions) Holders of any of the following certifications:
  • SCJP/OCJP 6
  • SCJP/OCJP 5
  • SCJP 1.4

Any older SCJP certs
Chart shows component if you have passed splitting into four code components like OCA 8 Exam, OCP 7 Exam, OCP Upgrade Exam, and Any SCJP/OCJP Exam for exam prerequisites.

FIGURE I.1 Exam prerequisites

For the OCA exam, we recommend a study plan that uses our OCA Oracle Certified Associated Java SE 8 Programmer I Study Guide along with Chapters 1 through 10 of this book. For the OCP exam, we recommend a study plan that uses our OCP Oracle Certified Professional Java SE 8 Programmer II Study Guide along with Chapters 11 through 23 of this book. That’s right, this book is actually two books in one! It assists you for both the OCA and OCP exams.

Taking an Upgrade Exam

There are some subtle differences in how you should prepare if you are taking one of the upgrade exams. The good news is that if you currently hold a Java 7 OCP certification and are taking the 1Z0-810 upgrade exam, this book is all you need. While the exam contains a stronger focus on changes between Java 7 and Java 8, there aren’t any new topics not covered with the existing OCP 7 material. This means you have the same study plan as those taking the OCP for the first time.

On the other hand, if you are taking the 1Z0-813 upgrade exam and hold a Sun Certified Java Programmer (SCJP) or Oracle Certified Java Programmer (OCJP) title, then you will need additional material. This upgrade inexplicably contains material that was in the Java 7 OCP exam but removed from the Java 8 version, such as ReentrantLock and WatchService. For that, we have no explanation, although this does make the 1Z0-813 arguably the most difficult of the three OCP exams because it requires knowing everything from multiple versions of Java.

Have no fear! When we wrote our OCP Oracle Certified Professional Java SE 8 Programmer II Study Guide, we added a special 50-page appendix, Appendix C, “Upgrading from Java 6 or Earlier,” which covers the topics solely on the 1Z0-813 exam in detail. If you are taking the 1Z0-813 exam, then after completing your studies with this book, you should consult our appendix in our OCP book or a Java 7 OCP study guide so that you are prepared for all of the objectives.

Considering Other Study Paths

If you already hold a Java certification, you are not required to take an upgrade exam. Some developers find it more straightforward to start with the easier 1Z0-808 OCA exam and then take the more challenging 1Z0-809 OCP exam. If you have no experience with Java 8 or just want more practice with it, taking the OCA exam followed by the OCP exam could be a better, albeit more expensive, learning experience than taking a single upgrade exam.

Also remember, if you do hold an old Java title and want to take an upgrade exam, you will need to prove it before you will be granted the OCP 8 title, even if you pass the upgrade exam. This requires registering your older certification with Oracle’s CertView system. We’ve heard feedback from some readers who had to search through old binders and emails from over a decade ago to submit the proper documentation that allows them to be granted the OCP 8 title.

Finally, if you are new to Java certification, it is traditional to take the exams in order, with the OCA exam followed by the OCP exam. However, this is a not strict requirement. It is possible, although quite unorthodox, to take the harder OCP exam first and then circle back to take the OCA exam. In this case, you’ll be granted both OCA and OCP titles upon completion of the OCA exam. While we don’t recommend this strategy, Oracle does allow it.

Who Should Buy This Book

If you are looking to take the OCA 8 exam (1Z0-808), then Chapters 1 through 10 of this book are for you. And once you’ve passed with flying colors, you’ll have the OCP material handy in case you decide to take the exam.

If you are looking to take the OCP 8 exam (1Z0-809) or OCP 8 upgrade exam (1Z0-810), then Chapters 1 through 23 of this book are for you. While Chapters 1 through 10 are primarily focused on the OCA exam, the OCP exam is cumulative. We recommend you start reviewing the OCA Chapters (1–10) to make sure you have a solid foundation and then move on to the OCP Chapters (11–23) when you are ready.

As mentioned earlier, if you are looking to take the OCP 8 upgrade exam (1Z0-813), this book will still help for the vast majority of topics. You will need to supplement this book with a Java 7 study guide or use Appendix C in our OCP book, which focuses on the precise topics on the 1Z0-813 exam that you need to know.

Regardless of which exam you plan to take, make sure to always keep your study guide handy. This book is about honing your knowledge of Java 8, while your study guide is about building it.

How This Book Is Organized

For this book, we decided to write two books in one, divided into Parts I and II. Part I includes Chapters 1 through 10, with nine objective-based chapters for each of the OCA exam objective sets followed by a simulated OCA practice exam. Part II encompasses Chapters 11 through 23, with 12 objective-based chapters for each of the OCP exam objective sets followed by a simulated OCP practice exam.

There are some subtle differences between the objective-based chapters and practice exam chapters that you should be aware of while reading this book.

Using the Objective-Based Chapters

We designed the structure and style of each question in the objective-based chapters to reflect a more positive learning experience, allowing you to spend less time on each question but covering a broader level of material. For example, you may see two questions that look similar within a chapter but contain a subtle difference that has drastic implications on whether or not the code compiles, or what output it produces.

Each question in the objective-based chapters has exactly four options with only one correct answer. Just like the review questions in our study guide, these questions are designed so that you can answer them many times. While these questions may be easier than exam questions, they will reinforce concepts if you keep taking them on a topic you don’t feel strongly on.

In our study guides, we often group related topics into chapters. For example, if/then statements and loops, which are in separate Oracle objective sets, were presented in a single chapter on Operators and Statements in our OCA book. In this book, we decided to design our chapters solely around Oracle’s objectives so you can strengthen your skills. While you don’t need to read an entire study guide before using an objective-based chapter in this book, you do need to study the relevant objectives. Tables I.2 and I.3 show what chapters you need to have read in our study guides as a minimum before practicing with the questions in this book.

TABLE I.2 Reference in OCA study guide

Chapter in This Book Objectives OCA Study Guide Chapters
1 Java Basics 1
2 Working with Java Data Types 1, 3
3 Using Operators and Decision Constructs 2, 3
4 Creating and Using Arrays 3
5 Using Loop Constructs 2
6 Working with Methods and Encapsulation 4
7 Working with Inheritance 5
8 Handling Exceptions 6
9 Working with Selected Classes from the Java API 1, 3, 4

TABLE I.3 Reference in OCP study guide

Chapter in This Book Objectives OCP Study Guide Chapters
11 Java Class Design 1, 2
12 Advanced Java Class Design 1, 2, 3
13 Generics and Collections 3, 4
14 Lambda Built-in Functional Interfaces 2, 4
15 Java Stream API 3, 4
16 Exceptions and Assertions 6
17 Use Java SE 8 Date/Time API 5
18 Java I/O Fundamentals 8
19 Java File I/O (NIO.2) 9
20 Java Concurrency 7
21 Building Database Applications with JDBC 10
22 Localization 5

Using the Practice Exam Chapters

This book contains two full-length practice exam chapters, with Chapter 10 being an 80-question OCA practice exam and Chapter 23 being an 85-question OCP practice exam. The questions in these two chapters are quite different from the objective-based chapters in a number of important ways. These practice exam questions tend to be harder because they are designed to test your cumulative knowledge rather than reinforcing your existing skill set.

While all of the objective-based chapters had four options with only one correct answer, these questions have up to six options, with up to three correct answer choices. Based on feedback from our first two books, we do indicate exactly how many answers are correct in the practice exam chapters, as is done on the real exam. Some readers thought the lack of knowing the correct number of answers made the questions too challenging for studying.

Both practice exam chapters are designed to be taken within 150 minutes and have a passing score of 65 percent. Remember not to take the practice exam until you feel ready. There are only so many practice exams available, so you don’t want to waste a fresh attempt.

While an objective-based chapter can be completed over the course of a few days, the practice exam chapters were designed to be completed in one sitting. You should try simulating the exam experience as much as possible. This means setting aside two and a half hours, grabbing a whiteboard or scrap paper, and answering every question even if you aren’t sure of the answer. Remember, there is no penalty for guessing, and the more incorrect answers you can eliminate the better.

Reviewing Exam Changes

Oracle does change the number of questions, passing score, and time limit from time to time. In fact, the exam writers changed the number of OCA 8 questions from 77 to 80 while this book was being written! Scott and Jeanne maintain a blog that tracks updates to the real exams, as quickly as Oracle updates them:

https://www.selikoff.net/jpt

We recommend you read this page before you take the real exam, in case any of the information since the time this book was published has changed. Although less common, Oracle does add, remove, or reword objectives. When this happens, we offer free supplemental material on our website as blog entries.

Ready to Take the Exam

If you can score above 80 percent consistently on all of the chapters related to the exam you want to take, including the simulated practice exam, then you are probably ready to take the real exam. Just remember there’s a big difference between taking a practice test at home and spending hundreds of dollars to take a real exam at a test center.

We could write an entire chapter on test taking skills and study tips. Oh wait, we did! Both our OCA 8 and OCP 8 books each contain an appendix chock-full of helpful tips and suggestions that are designed to help you manage your time. They also include notes on how to eliminate obviously wrong answers so that when you have to guess, you’re choosing between two choices and not five.

Finally, although a lot of people are inclined to cram as much material as they can in the hours leading up to the exam, most studies have shown that this is a poor test-taking strategy. The best thing we can recommend that you do before the exam is to get a good night’s rest!

Need More Help Preparing?

Both of the authors are moderators at CodeRanch.com, a very large and active programming forum that is very friendly toward Java beginners. It has separate forums for each of the exams:

OCA Forum: https://coderanch.com/f/117

OCP Forum: https://coderanch.com/f/24

If you don’t understand a question, even after reading the explanation, feel free to ask about it in one of those forums. You’ll get an answer from a knowledgeable Java programmer. It might even be one of us.

Good luck on the exam and happy studies!

Bonus Contents

This book has a web page that provides all the questions in this book using Wiley’s interactive online test engine.

PART I
OCA

Chapter 1
Java Basics

THE OCA EXAM TOPICS COVERED IN THIS PRACTICE TEST INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:

  1. Which of the following method signatures is a valid declaration of an entry point in a Java application?

    1. public void main(String[] args)
    2. public static void main()
    3. private static void start(String[] mydata)
    4. public static final void main(String[] mydata)
  2. The following class diagram demonstrates the relationship between Gold and Silver, which extend the Metal class. Assume the attributes are all declared public. Which statement about the diagram is not true?

    Diagram shows metal with weight and color as characters which are common component for gold-hue and silver-luster as its characters to demonstrate relationship.
    1. The diagram demonstrates platform independence in Java.
    2. The diagram demonstrates object-oriented design in Java.
    3. The Gold and Silver classes inherit weight and color attributes from the Metal class.
    4. Gold does not inherit the luster attribute.
  3. What is the proper filename extension for a Java bytecode compiled file?

    1. .java
    2. .bytecode
    3. .class
    4. .dll
  4. Given that a Date class exists in both the java.util and java.sql packages, what is the result of compiling the following class?

    1: import java.util.*;
    2: import java.sql.*;
    3: public class BirthdayManager {
    4:    private Date rob = new Date();
    5:    private java.util.Date sharon = new java.util.Date();
    6: }
    1. The code does not compile because of lines 1 and 2.
    2. The code does not compile because of line 4.
    3. The code does not compile because of line 5.
    4. The code compiles without issue.
  5. Which of the following is not a facet of traditional object-oriented programming languages?

    1. Objects are grouped as procedures, separate from the data they act on.
    2. An object can take many forms via casting.
    3. An object can hold data, referred to as attributes.
    4. An object can perform actions, via methods.
  6. Which variables have a scope limited to a method?

    1. Interface variables
    2. Class variables
    3. Instance variables
    4. Local variables
  7. Which package is imported into every Java class by default?

    1. java.util
    2. java.lang
    3. system.lang
    4. java.system
  8. Which of the following is not a valid code comment in Java?

    1. // Add 5 to the result
    2. /*** TODO: Fix bug 12312 ***/
    3. # Add configuration value
    4. /* Read file from system ****/
  9. Which statement about a valid .java file is true?

    1. It can only contain one class declaration.
    2. It can contain one public class declaration and one public interface definition.
    3. It must define at least one public class.
    4. It may define at most one public class.
  10. Given the following application, fill in the missing values in the table starting from the top and going downward.

    package competition;
    public class Robot {
       static String weight = "A lot";
       /* default */ double ageMonths = 5, ageDays = 2;
       private static boolean success = true;
       public void main(String[] args) {
          final String retries = "1";
          // P1
       }
    }
    Variable Type Number of Variables Accessible at P1
    Class _______
    Instance _______
    Local _______

    1. 2, 0, 1
    2. 2, 2, 1
    3. 1, 0, 1
    4. 0, 2, 1
  11. Which statement about import statements is true?

    1. The class will not compile if it contains unused import statements.
    2. Unused import statements can be removed from the class without causing a class to become unable to be compiled.
    3. The class will not compile if a duplicate import statement is present.
    4. If a class contains an import statement for a class used in the program that cannot be found, it can still compile.
  12. What is the result of compiling and executing the following class?

    1: public class ParkRanger {
    2:    int birds = 10;
    3:    public static void main(String[] data) {
    4:       int trees = 5;
    5:       System.out.print(trees+birds);
    6:    }
    7: }
    1. It does not compile.
    2. It compiles but throws an exception at runtime.
    3. It compiles and outputs 5.
    4. It compiles and outputs 15.
  13. Which statements about Java are true?

    • The java command can execute .java and .class files.
    • Java is not object oriented.
    • The javac command compiles directly into native machine code.
    1. I only
    2. III only
    3. II and III
    4. None are true.
  14. Which of the following lines of code is not allowed as the first line of a Java class file?

    1. import widget.*;
    2. // Widget Manager
    3. package sprockets;
    4. int facilityNumber;
  15. Which one of the following statements is true about using packages to organize your code in Java?

    1. Every class is required to include a package declaration.
    2. To create a new package, you need to add a package.init file to the directory.
    3. Packages allow you to limit access to classes, methods, or data from classes outside the package.
    4. It is not possible to restrict access to objects and methods within a package.
  16. Given that the current directory is /user/home, with an application Java file in /user/home/Manager.java that uses the default package, which are the correct commands to compile and run the application in Java?

    1. javac Manager
      java Manager
    2. javac Manager.java
      java Manager
    3. javac Manager
      java Manager.class
    4. javac Manager.java
      java Manager.class
  17. Structuring a Java class such that only methods within the class can access its instance variables is referred to as _______.

    1. platform independence
    2. object orientation
    3. inheritance
    4. encapsulation
  18. What is the output of the following code snippet?

    String tree = "pine";
    int count = 0;
    if (tree.equals("pine")) {
       int height = 55;
       count = count + 1;
    }
    System.out.print(height + count);
    1. 1
    2. 55
    3. 56
    4. It does not compile.
  19. Which of the following is true of a Java bytecode file?

    1. It can be run on any computer with a compatible JVM.
    2. It can only be executed on the same type of computer that it was created on.
    3. It can be easily read and modified in a standard text editor.
    4. It requires the corresponding .java that created it to execute.
  20. What is the correct character for terminating a statement in Java?

    1. A colon (:)
    2. An end-of-line character
    3. A tab character
    4. A semicolon (;)
  21. What is the result of compiling and executing the following class?

    1: public class Tolls {
    2:    private static int yesterday = 1;
    3:    int tomorrow = 10;
    4:    public static void main(String[] args) {
    5:       Tolls tolls = new Tolls();
    6:       int today=20, tomorrow = 40;
    7:       System.out.print(today + tolls.tomorrow + tolls.yesterday);
    8:    }
    9: }
    1. The code does not compile due to line 6.
    2. The code does not compile due to line 7.
    3. 31
    4. 61
  22. Given the following class definition, which is the only line that does not contain a compilation error?

    1: public ThisClassDoesNotCompile {
    2:    double int count;
    3:    void errors() {}
    4:    static void private limit; }
    1. Line 1
    2. Line 2
    3. Line 3
    4. Line 4
  23. Which of the following features allows a Java class to be run on a wide variety of computers and devices?

    1. Encapsulation
    2. Object oriented
    3. Inheritance
    4. Platform independence
  24. Which of the following is not a property of a JVM?

    1. It prevents Java bytecode from being easily decoded/decompiled.
    2. It supports platform independence.
    3. It manages memory for the application.
    4. It translates Java instructions to machine instructions.
  25. Which of the following variables are always in scope for the entire program?

    1. Package variables
    2. Class variables
    3. Instance variables
    4. Local variables
  26. Given the following wildcard import statements, which class would be included in the import?

    import television.actor.*;
    import movie.director.*;
    1. television.actor.recurring.Marie
    2. movie.directors.John
    3. television.actor.Package
    4. movie.NewRelease
  27. Which is the correct order of statements for a Java class file?

    1. import statements, package statement, class declaration
    2. package statement, class declaration, import statement
    3. class declaration, import statements, package declaration
    4. package statement, import statements, class declaration
  28. Given the following class definition, what is the maximum number of import statements that can be discarded and still have the code compile? For this question, assume that the Blackhole class is defined only in the stars package.

    package planetarium;
    import java.lang.*;
    import stars.*;
    import java.lang.Object;
    import stars.Blackhole;
     
    public class Observer {
       public void find(Blackhole blackhole) {}
    }
    1. Zero
    2. One
    3. Two
    4. Three
  29. Given the following class definition, which command will cause the application to output the message White-tailed?

    package forest;
    public class Deer {
       public static void main(String... deerParams) {
          System.out.print(theInput[2]);
       }
    }
    1. java forest.Deer deer 5 "White-tailed deer"
    2. java forest.Deer "White-tailed deer" deer 3
    3. java forest.Deer Red deer White-tailed deer
    4. java forest.Deer My "deer White-tailed"
  30. Which of the following is a true statement?

    1. The java command compiles a .java file into a .class file.
    2. The javac command compiles a .java file into a .class file.
    3. The java command compiles a .class file into a .java file.
    4. The javac command compiles a .class file into a .java file.
  31. Which of the following statements about Java is true?

    1. Java is a procedural programming language.
    2. Java allows method overloading.
    3. Java allows operator overloading.
    4. Java allows direct access to objects in memory.
  32. Given the following code, what values inserted in order into the blank lines, allow the code to compile?

     _______agent;
    public  _______Banker {
       private static  _______getMaxWithdrawal() {
          return 10;
       }
    }
    1. import, class, null
    2. import, interface, void
    3. package, int, int
    4. package, class, long
  33. What is the output of the following application?

    public class Airplane {
       static int start = 2;
       final int end;
       public Airplane(int x) {
          x = 4;
          end = x;
       }
       public void fly(int distance) {
          System.out.print(end-start+" ");
          System.out.print(distance);
       }
       public static void main(String... start) {
          new Airplane(10).fly(5);
       }
    }
    1. 2 5
    2. 8 5
    3. 6 5
    4. The code does not compile.
  34. What is one of the most important reasons that Java supports extending classes via inheritance?

    1. Inheritance requires that a class that extends another class be in the same package.
    2. The program must spend extra time/resources at runtime jumping through multiple layers of inheritance to determine precise methods and variables.
    3. Method signature changes in parent classes may break subclasses that use overloaded methods.
    4. Developers minimize duplicate code in new classes by sharing code in a common parent class.
  35. Which of the following is a valid code comment in Java?

    1. //////// Walk my dog
    2. #! Go team!
    3. / Process fails at runtime /
    4. None of the above
  36. Which of the following method signatures is not a valid declaration of an entry point in a Java application?

    1. public static void main(String... arguments)
    2. public static void main(String arguments)
    3. public static final void main(String[] arguments)
    4. public static void main(String[] arguments)
  37. Given the file Magnet.java below, which of the marked lines can you independently insert the line public String color; into and still have the code compile?

    // line a1
    public class Magnet {
       // line a2
       public void attach() {
          // line a3
       }
       // line a4
    }
    1. a1 and a3
    2. a2 and a4
    3. a2, a3, and a4
    4. a1, a2, a3, and a4
  38. What is required to define a valid Java class file?

    1. A class declaration
    2. A package statement
    3. At least one import statement
    4. The public modifier
  39. What is the proper filename extension for a Java source file?

    1. .jav
    2. .class
    3. .source
    4. .java
  40. Given that a Math class exists in both the java.lang and pocket.complex packages, what is the result of compiling the following class?

    1: package pocket;
    2: import pocket.complex.*;
    3: import java.util.*;
    4: public class Calculator {
    5:   public static void main(String[] args) {
    6:      System.out.print(Math.floor(5));
    7:   }
    8: }
    1. The code does not compile because of line 2.
    2. The code does not compile because of line 3.
    3. The code does not compile because of line 6.
    4. The code compiles without issue.
  41. Given a class that uses the following import statements, which class would not be automatically accessible within the class without using its full package name?

    import dog.*;
    import dog.puppy.*;
    1. dog.puppy.female.KC
    2. dog.puppy.Georgette
    3. dog.Webby
    4. java.lang.Object
  42. _______is the technique of structuring programming data as a unit consisting of attributes, with actions defined on the unit.

    1. Encapsulation
    2. Object orientation
    3. Platform independence
    4. Polymorphism
  43. Given the following class definition, what is the maximum number of import statements that can be discarded and still have the code compile? For this question, assume that the Broccoli class is in the food.vegetables package, and the Apple class is the food.fruit package.

    package food;
    import food.vegetables.*;
    import food.fruit.*;
    import java.util.Date;
     
    public class Grocery {
       Apple a; Broccoli b;  Date c;
    }
    1. 0
    2. 1
    3. 2
    4. 3
  44. Given the following application, what is the expected output?

    public class Keyboard {
       private boolean numLock = true;
       static boolean capLock = false;
       public static void main(String... shortcuts) {
          System.out.print(numLock+" "+capLock);
       }
    }
    1. true false
    2. false false
    3. It does not compile.
    4. It compiles but throws an exception at runtime.
  45. What is the result of compiling and executing the following class?

    public class RollerSkates {
       static int wheels = 1;
       int tracks = 5;
       public static void main(String[] arguments) {
          RollerSkates s = new RollerSkates();
          int feet=4, tracks = 15;
          System.out.print(feet + tracks + s.wheels);
       }
    }
    1. The code does not compile.
    2. 5
    3. 10
    4. 20
  46. What is the result of compiling and executing the following class?

    package sports;
    public class Bicycle {
       String color = "red";
       private void printColor(String color) {
          color = "purple";
          System.out.print(color);
       }
       public static void main(String[] rider) {
          new Bicycle().printColor("blue");
       }
    }
    1. red
    2. purple
    3. blue
    4. It does not compile.
  47. Which statements about calling the compilation command javac and the execution command java are true?

    • java may use a period . to separate packages.
    • javac takes a .java file and returns a .class file.
    • java may use a slash (/) to separate packages.
      1. I only
      2. II only
      3. I and II
      4. I, II, and III
  48. What is the result of compiling and executing the following application?

    package forecast;
    public class Weather {
       private static boolean heatWave = true;
       public static void main() {
          boolean heatWave = false;
          System.out.print(heatWave);
       }
    }
    1. true
    2. false
    3. It does not compile.
    4. It compiles but throws an error at runtime.
  49. Given the following class diagram, which Java implementation most closely matches this structure?

    Diagram shows book with numberOfPages and getRating () as its unique characters, that are used for Java implementation most closely matches this structure in particular program.
    1. public class Book {
         public int numOfPages;
    2. public class Book {
         public String getRating() {return null;} }
    3. public class Book {
         public int numberOfPages;
         public String getRating() {return null;} }
    4. public class Book {
         void numberOfPages; }
  50. Which statement about the JVM is true?

    1. The JVM schedules garbage collection on a predictable schedule.
    2. The JVM ensures that the application will always terminate.
    3. The JVM requires a properly defined entry point method to execute the application.
    4. A Java compiled code can be run on any computer.